Although Enlightenment philosophers acknowledged their debt to Newton (the world’s most towering intellectual of his time and one of history’s greatest scientists and mathematicians), he saw nothing improper with the slave trade and in 1720. When machines began reproducing human labor, the abolition of slavery also began, as it made unskilled labor uneconomical. Slavery, particularly the genocidal forms inflicted by Europe, were viable only for situations in which little professional skill was needed. Slavery worked best in mine and plantation work that used illiterate and often-expendable people. What became the USA was unique in the European age of slavery, in that tobacco operations, unlike sugar plantations, had more seasonal labor demands. Moreover, the environment of southeast North America was conducive to long-lived and fertile slaves, so that they could reproduce. Consequently, what became the USA was a , with its large slave population largely bred, not captured. People born into slavery are easier to keep enslaved than those born free, but they had to be kept illiterate and at low skill levels, or else they might desire freedom and obtain it. Late in the American era of slavery, some slaves were taught to read, but generally only one book, which justified slavery: the Bible. All the way to , apologists for slavery used Biblical passages to justify it. Many also justified antebellum slavery with economic arguments, stating that people took better care of something they owned rather than something they rented.
Rome was a huge parasite. Its citizens did not understand that their methods were unsustainable, not to mention evil, and would lead to their civilization’s collapse. The Spaniards’ obsession with gold, which was responsible for , suffered from a similar blindness. Although warned by Spanish scholars that importing mountains of gold and silver to Spain would do little economically for Spain other than create inflation, the Spanish sovereigns did not heed the advice. The that marked the effective end of Spain’s imperial aspirations was in 1557, a mere generation after the initial Incan plunder began arriving in Spain. , and . Spain and Portugal became the first imperial also-rans during Europe’s rise. Portugal’s acquired some real if ephemeral wealth during its century of dominance. Portugal also imperially overreached, but closer to home. When its ruling class was decimated by , Spain annexed Portugal. With their imperial fortunes thus conjoined, they declined at the same time.
It was a good enough book for me to enjoy the read but not enough to make me want to read any of the other books in the series.
Word count: 830
Tomorrow When the War Began
Tomorrow when the war began, by John Marsden is the study of the human spirit, taking a look into the shock and stress of war, looking at the mess it makes of people’s minds, and looking at how people respond to such a situation.
In 1987, we , where I had been raised, before the sledgehammer in Boston could fall on us. We moved because I had connected us with technologies and talent that made our free energy ideas potentially feasible. Our public awareness efforts became highly successful and we were . In early 1988, our efforts were targeted by the local authorities, again at the behest of energy interests, both local and global. In a , mere weeks after those same authorities , my radicalization began. A few months later, my partner was offered about by that shadowy global group; the CIA delivered that offer. Soon after my partner refused their offer, he was arrested with a and our nightmare began. The turning point of my life was when I became the defense’s key witness and the as they tried to intimidate me. It helped inspire me to in an attempt to free my partner. My gesture incredibly worked, in the greatest miracle that I ever witnessed. I helped free my partner, but my life had been ruined by the events of 1988, and in 1990 . I had been radicalized (""), and I then spent the next several years seeking understanding of what I had lived through and why the world worked starkly differently from how I was taught that it did. I began the that culminated in publishing my first website in 1996, which was also when I after he was released from prison, after the and . The Global Controllers then to new, sophisticated levels and I nearly went to prison.
Many books stress this topic such as The Hunger Games and Game of Thrones but I think that Tomorrow When the War Began has the most direct connection with the theme.
The characters were really a strong suit in this novel because they were strongly developed with the exception of Chris.
Speciation has probably been more controversial than extinction. To be fair to Darwin, genetics was not yet a science when was published in 1859. It was not until the by Silesian friar Gregor Mendel that the science of genetics began, but Mendel’s work was until the 20th century. Darwin went to his grave unaware of Mendel’s work. Today, speciation is primarily considered to be a genetic event. But similar to how that dictate their function, and that appear at higher levels of complexity, the DNA code by itself does not explain life, although the popular frames life and evolution as a .
are created by undisturbed organism remains that become saturated with various chemicals, which gradually replace the organic material with rock by . Few life forms ever become fossils but are instead consumed by other life. Rare dynamics lead to fossil formation, usually by anoxic conditions leading to undisturbed sediments that protect the evidence and fossilize it. Scientists estimate that only about 1%-2% of all species that ever existed have left behind fossils that have been recovered. Geological processes are continually creating new land, both on the continents and under the ocean. Seafloor strata do not provide much insight into life’s ancient past, particularly fossils, because the process in “mere” . The basic process is that, in the Atlantic and Pacific sea floors in particular, oceanic volcanic ridges spew out basalt and the plates flow toward the surrounding continents. When oceanic plates reach continental plates, the heavier (basaltic) oceanic plates are subducted below the lighter (granitic) continental plates. Parts of an oceanic plate were more than 100 mya and left behind plate fragments. On the continents, however, as they have floated on the heavier rocks, tectonic and erosional processes have not obliterated all ancient rocks and fossils. The oldest “indigenous” rocks yet found on Earth are . have been dated to 3.5 bya, and fossils of individual cyanobacteria have been dated to 1.5 bya. There are recent claims of finding . The oldest eukaryote fossils found so far are of . The first amoeba-like vase-shaped fossils date from about 750 mya, and there are recent claims of finding the first animal fossils in Namibia, of sponge-like creatures which are . Fossils from might be the first animal fossils, and some scientists think that animals may have first appeared about one bya. The first animals, or , probably descended from . The is a tail-like appendage that protists primarily used to move and it could also be used to create a current to capture food. Flagella were used to draw food into the first animals, which would have been sponge-like. When the first colonies developed in which unicellular organisms began to specialize and act in concert, animals were born, and it is currently thought that the evolution of animals probably only happened . In interpreting the fossil record, there are four general levels of confidence: inevitable conclusions (such as ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles), likely interpretations (ichthyosaurs appeared to give live birth instead of laying eggs), speculations (were ichthyosaurs warm-blooded?), and guesses (what color was an ichthyosaur?).
Before the rise of humanity and industrial agriculture, the interplay of life, climate, and land masses created the that fed oceanic ecosystems. However, during the Cambrian Explosion the land was largely barren, as life had yet to significantly invade land. Also, have always been key hosts for oceanic ecosystems, as sunlight could reach the seafloor and nutrients were closer to the surface. When supercontinents broke apart or formed as the tectonic plates danced across Earth’s crust, shallow seas were often created, which were usually quite life-friendly. Those ancient shallow seas and swampy continental margins have great importance to today’s humanity, as our fossil fuels were usually created there. Earth’s were created in swampy floodplain conditions, usually near coasts, and the oil deposits were created by and that . The and its predecessors (, ) had a half-billion-year history that began in the Ediacaran, and the Tethys finally disappeared less than 20 mya. The shallow margins of those tropical oceans, and the anoxic events that dotted the eon of complex life, formed most of today’s oil deposits, and . Numerous shallow tropical seas .
Around when Harland first proposed a global ice age, a climate model developed by Russian climatologist concluded that if a Snowball Earth really happened, the runaway positive feedbacks would ensure that the planet would never thaw and become a permanent block of ice. For the next generation, that climate model made a Snowball Earth scenario seem impossible. In 1992, a professor, , that coined the term Snowball Earth. Kirschvink sketched a scenario in which the supercontinent near the equator reflected sunlight, as compared to tropical oceans that absorb it. Once the global temperature decline due to reflected sunlight began to grow polar ice, the ice would reflect even more sunlight and Earth’s surface would become even cooler. This could produce a runaway effect in which the ice sheets grew into the tropics and buried the supercontinent in ice. Kirschvink also proposed that the situation could become unstable. As the sea ice crept toward the equator, it would kill off all photosynthetic life and a buried supercontinent would no longer engage in . Those were two key ways that carbon was removed from the atmosphere in the day's , especially before the rise of land plants. Volcanism would have been the main way that carbon dioxide was introduced to the atmosphere (animal respiration also releases carbon dioxide, but this was before the eon of animals), and with two key dynamics for removing it suppressed by the ice, carbon dioxide would have increased in the atmosphere. The resultant greenhouse effect would have eventually melted the ice and runaway effects would have quickly turned Earth from an icehouse into a greenhouse. Kirschvink proposed the idea that Earth could vacillate between states.