The Swiss humanitarian, the American:,and ,the founders of "progressive" education -- Francis Parker and -- and pioneers such as and , among others, all insisted that education should be understoodas the art of cultivating the moral, emotional, physical, psychologicaland spiritual dimensions of the developingchild.More recently and in a somewhat different vain, social critics such asJohn Holt, Paul Goodman,, and have examined education from anarchist-leaning perspectives,that is, critiques of the ways that conventional schooling subverts democracyby molding young people'sunderstandings.A third quality that distinguishes alternatives from traditional educationis their diversity.
Through its newsletter and quarterly journal as well as its annual conference,the FPEAA supports radical adult education in many forms from simplicitycircles to participatory action research to other grassroots groups incultural work, environmental work, economic work, and communityleadership.It is my hope that adults experiencing various forms of folk educationcan begin to see the meaningful connections between being and action, learningand doing, and other less traditional ways of thinking about education.
fourteen Feet wide. Water and Wood may be had very convenient to carry on the Brickmaking Business; the Clay is known to make Bricks of the best Sort, and two Yoke of Oxen may be had, with the above Conveniences,-it lies within three quarters of a Mile of a very good Landing:
For further Particulars, inquire of CORNELIUS COVENHOVEN, Jun. Monmouth, Middletown, Jan. 20th, 1772."
From [New York Journal; or The
General Advertiser, Jan. 23, 1772].
In a lawsuit before this Court for the 15th of 5 mo. 1687, John Ingram, a brickmaker, brought suit against (name unintelligible) for the payment of some bricks delivered on contract. The dispute arose because of the size of the bricks furnished. In the testimony it was shown that Ingram had three thousand bricks ready to deliver and one witness testified that 'the defendant was then satisfied with the size of the bricks to ye best of his knowledge for he heard him say nothing against their size."
(John Miller includessuch approaches within the transaction orientation.) Ron Miller qualitativelydifferentiates self-direction from the transactional perspective becauseunlike the others, it is concerned with learning as such, and often repudiateseducation as a distinct profession.
In writing about the State House (Independence Hall), Watson says:
"It seems to have cost 15600 and the two wings to have been made as late as 1739-40; Edmond Woolley did the carpenter work, John Harrison the joiner work. Thos. Boude was brick mason, William Holland did the marble work, Thos. Kerr, plasterer, Benjamin Fairman and James Stoopes made the bricks; the lime was from the kilns of the Tysons."
In describing some meanderings over the commons which occupied the territory of Philadelphia west of Broad street
In addition, the is an excellent source for historic descriptions of who are associated with thesealternatives, including Paulo Freire, Carl Rogers, Maria Montessori, JohnDewey, and many others.
About a journey and a quest: a journey among the Spice Islands of equatorial Indonesia aboard a traditional native sailing vessel - a quest to rediscover a remarkable Englishman whose wandering in the archipelago changed the way we see the natural world.