Egypt, a major country of the Middle East, is habitually considered stereotypical of Middle Eastern civilization, but further research guides one to the conclusion that Egypt is far from a generic Middle Eastern country.
The ancient civilization of the Egyptians was one of the most significant and well known cultures to ever have existed and technology wise, they were light years ahead.
Although there is , Sumer became the first literate civilization about 3000 BCE, after their invention of . Mesopotamian peoples , and elite accounting was typical of the first writing systems, or tales to aggrandize the elite. For instance, the of the preliterate Incas was an accounting tool. By the , silver became the official unit of accounting, to be supplanted by gold a millennium later, probably due to Egyptian influence.
The human ability to think abstractly was exploited by social managers from civilization’s earliest days. Fixating people on irrational symbols, and then manipulating those symbols for elite benefit, is arguably a universal trait of civilized peoples. Even today, a great deal of politics is the ; as with the earliest religion, the neocortex is bypassed in favor of , and people are easy prey to the cynical manipulation of emotionally charged symbols. The effects of can last for the victim’s lifetime. When people mistake symbols for reality, they are easily manipulated. Large-scale ideological indoctrination probably began in Sumer, as the priesthood concocted and promoted various beliefs. Symbology replaced reality, including the acceptance of the secular elite as deific, getting slaves to accept their status, and getting commoners to give food to the priesthood to fulfill some divinely ordained obligation. Religion passed from experience to belief with the rise of civilization. I am not suggesting that pre-civilized religions were necessarily enlightened. They had shamanic intermediaries too, but with the rise of civilization, the priest class had to work hard to justify the obviously unfair social organization that accompanied stratified populations. Direct religious experience was disparaged and suppressed while the priesthood’s religious indoctrination was promoted.
The writers of the knew that deforestation led to droughts, and Gilgamesh’s war against the forest foreshadowed the fate of numerous Old World civilizations. The city-states of southern Mesopotamia made regular journeys to Lebanon’s cedar forest. The ruler of , not far from Uruk, had plans for aggrandizing his legacy and leveled cedar forests and rafted their logs downriver to Lagash to fulfill his grandiose schemes. The city-states of southern Mesopotamia deforested upstream river valleys and rafted logs to their downstream cities. Wars between the city-states, and wars of foreign conquest to secure forests and navigable rivers (particularly the Tigris, Euphrates, and of today’s Iran), were common then. Wood became such a coveted commodity that it could approach the value of precious metals and stones, and rulers placed names on mountains corresponding with what tree predominantly grew on each one.
While various ancient civilizations had different religions and different interpretations of how those religions interacted with society, all believed that the supernatural was a part of the everyday life.
Intense has existed in situations in which scientific and technological advances can threaten economic empires, but many areas of science are not seen as threatening, and reconstructing Earth’s distant past and the journey of life on Earth is one of those nonthreatening areas. I have never heard of a classified fossil site or a Precambrian specialist being threatened or bought out in order to keep him/her silent. There is more controversy with human remains and artifacts, but I am skeptical of popular works that argue for technologically advanced ancient civilizations and related notions. Something closer to “pure science” can be practiced regarding those ancient events without the threat of repercussions or the enticements of riches and . Much of this essay’s subject matter deals with areas in which the distortions of political-economic racketeering have been muted and the theories and tools have been unrestricted.
(Please note that the writer will be referring to text from Strayer’s 2011 edition of the text, in comparison to the modern version.) The entire chapter discusses the way that the civilizations emerged, as well as how equality was eventually diminished from the society, Mesoamer...
In the Western Hemisphere, the and civilization collapses of around a thousand years ago, or the Mississippian civilization collapse of 500 years ago, have elicited a great deal of investigation. From New Age ideas that the Anasazi and Mayan peoples “ascended” to the Eurocentric conceit that the was European in origin, many speculations arose that have been disproven by the evidence. It is now known that the Anasazi and Mayan culture collapses were influenced by epic droughts, but that was only the proximate cause. The ultimate cause was that those civilizations were not energetically sustainable, and the unsustainable long before Europeans invaded North America. The Anasazi used logs to build their dwellings that today . Scientists have used strontium ratios in the wood to determine where the logs came from, as well as dating the wood with and analyzing , and a sobering picture emerged. The region was already arid, but agriculture and deforestation desertified the region around , which was the heart of Anasazi civilization. When Anasazi civilization collapsed, at Chaco Canyon they were hauling in timber from mountains more than 70 kilometers away (the strontium ratios could trace each log from the particular mountain that it came from). When the epic droughts delivered their final blows, Anasazi civilization collapsed into a morass of starvation, warfare, and cannibalism, and the forest has yet to begin to recover, nearly a millennium later.
When two atoms come close to each other, if the potential energy of their combined state is less than their potential energy when they are separate, the atoms will tend to react. But the reaction only happens when the electron shells come into an alignment so that the reaction happen. It is an issue of alignment and the atoms’ velocity. If the shells do not meet in the proper alignment and velocity, the reaction will not happen and the atoms will bounce away from each other. The faster and more often the atoms collide, the likelier they are to react and reach that lower energy state. Chemical (electron shell) reactions need to reach their to occur, and this is measured in temperature. The activation energy for hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water is about 560 degrees Celsius (560o C). Nuclear reactions work in similar fashion, but for nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core, at 16 million degrees Celsius, at a pressure 340 billion times greater than Earth’s atmosphere at sea level, in 10 billion years at one trillion collisions per second, a proton has a 50% chance of fusing with another proton. Nuclear fusion is thus far rarer than electron bonding, and far less energy is released when atoms bond via electrons. The fusion of a helium nucleus releases that it takes to ionize a hydrogen atom. As , some reactions have a cumulative result of , while others . The first can be seen as an investment of energy, while the second can be seen as consuming it. Organisms and civilizations have always faced the investment/consumption decision.
There are two primary aspects of life, and what can be observed in human civilization are often only more complex iterations of those aspects, which are: