Brook E. Heaton, Edward M. Kennedy, Rebekah E. Dumm, Alfred T. Harding, Matthew T. Sacco, David Sachs, Nicholas S. Heaton. . (2017) A CRISPR Activation Screen Identifies a Pan-avian Influenza Virus Inhibitory Host Factor. 20:7, 1503-1512.
The pandemic catastrophe begins on January 3, 2018, after billions of people around the world have celebrated the start of the new year. That is when HSN1 (avian influenza) virus goes global, mutating so that it can be passed from one human to the next. The avian influenza virus refers to influenza A virus, which was found in 2009 chiefly in birds; thus, the risk from avian influenza was believed to be generally low to most people because these viruses did not usually infect humans. Nonetheless, because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists have been concerned that HSN1 virus could one day infect humans and spread easily from one person to another. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has warned Americans, “Because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human population. If HSN1 virus were to gain the capacity to spread easily from person to person, an influenza pandemic (worldwide outbreak of disease) could begin.” On January 10, 2018, a cluster of thirty unusual flu cases appears in the state of Perak in Malaysia. Clinical rests confirm that a new strain of the HSN1 virus has infected all thirty of these people. The population in Perak, as well as the rest of the world, has no innate immunity to this new strain. By the end of the month, at least fifteen people are dead across Malaysia, two hundred are hospitalized, and more than one thousand cases have been confirmed. Then another suspected case is discovered in Singapore.
The H1N1 influenza virus that killed Jacob was not the normal seasonal flu that we experience each year, but rather a new influenza flu virus of swine origin that was first detected in Mexico in April 2009, when it began infecting people throughout the world. Within a few weeks, the virus had infected thousands of people around the world through person-to-person contact. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that from April 2009 to April 2010, between 43 million and 61 million cases of H1N1 occurred in the United States alone. Furthermore, the CDC estimated that between 195,000 and 403,000 H1N1-related hospitalizations and between 8,870 and 18,300 H1N1-related deaths occurred between April 2009 and April 2010. The CDC considered the H1N1 pandemic, unlike the devastating pandemic in 1918, moderate in severity, but cautioned that we should plan for more severe pandemics in the future.
Beyond institutional, political, and managerial difficulties, the most fundamental constraints on pandemic preparedness are the limits of scientific understanding and technical capacity. Perhaps because only three or four influenza pandemics tend to occur each century, at least in recent centuries, the annals of influenza are filled with overly confident predictions based on insufficient evidence. Studies designed to select for avian-origin viruses that can be transmitted more readily than the original virus in mammalian species (gain-of-function studies) may arguably help predict the pandemic potential of naturally occurring viruses but have raised concerns about the possibilities of intentional misuse and unintended consequences. In the current state of scientific knowledge, however, no one can predict with confidence which influenza virus will become dangerous to human health and to what degree. The only way, potentially, to reduce this uncertainty is through a deeper biologic and epidemiologic understanding.
In anticipation of a possible pandemic before 2009, public health authorities had focused on the threat of avian H5N1 influenza, and a signal feature among recognized cases of H5N1 influenza in humans was mortality exceeding 50%. Hence, it was expected that a newly emerging pandemic virus would cause many deaths as well as widespread disease, and the WHO said as much on its website on pandemic preparedness in advance of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.
A number of viruses have pandemic potential. For example, the coronavirus responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which first appeared in southern China in November 2002, caused 8096 cases and 774 deaths in 26 countries before coming to a halt by July 2003 mainly owing to isolation and quarantine. In terms of persistence, versatility, potential severity, and speed of spread, however, few viruses rival influenza virus. Endemic in a number of species, including humans, birds, and pigs, influenza virus causes annual outbreaks punctuated by occasional worldwide pandemics, which are characterized by sustained community spread in multiple regions of the world.
Free influenza virus papers, essays, and research papers. Influenza A H1N1 Virus - Introduction In 1918-19 approximately 50 million deaths were a detriment
Tchilian, Elma; Holzer, Barbara. 2017. "Harnessing Local Immunity for an Effective Universal Swine Influenza Vaccine." Viruses 9, no. 5: 98.
Over the past decade, sporadic cases of severe influenza and deaths in humans have been caused by a number of avian influenza A viruses, including the H5N1 virus, first detected in 1997, and the H7N9 and H10N8 viruses, first reported in 2013. Such sporadic cases may be harbingers of a gathering pandemic, but the likelihood is difficult to judge because it is not known how frequently similar zoonotic episodes occurred silently in the past, when surveillance was more limited, and did not cause pandemics.
Tchilian, E.; Holzer, B. Harnessing Local Immunity for an Effective Universal Swine Influenza Vaccine. Viruses 2017, 9, 98.
However, they can sometimes come from the other types, such as H1N2, H3N1, .Biology/Influenza term paper 264 1918-19 "Spanish flu" A(H1N1) Open 24/7 Your essay will be done on time!
11 Jun 2011 In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) determined that H1N1 2009 influenza A swine flu reached WHO level 6 criteria (person-
Veljko Veljkovic, Nevena Veljkovic, Slobodan Paessler, Marco Goeijenbier, Vladimir Perovic, Sanja Glisic, Claude P. Muller, Andrew Pekosz. . (2016) Predicted Enhanced Human Propensity of Current Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus from China. 11:11, e0165451.
Earlier this year, a novel strain of H1N1 influenza, originally found in swine, was discovered in humans. Since this discovery, more than 70 countries throughout the world have reported cases of this strain of the flu, causing the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic. Since this declaration, cases of novel H1N1 influenza have only increased, making headlines worldwide. Though causing mild symptoms for the most part, this strain of H1N1 is still a concern due to its growing incidence, as well as the fact that other strains of H1N1 were the cause of much more serious pandemics, such as the 1918 flu pandemic.