The five all embracing major concessions covering the period 2 September 1880 to 6 October 1888 that were concluded by agents of Cecil Rhodes’ British South Africa Company (BSAC), are :
His extraordinary imperialist ideas were revealed early, after his serious heart attack in 1877, when he made his first will, disposing of his as yet unearned fortune to found a secret society that would extend British rule over the whole world and colonize most parts of it with British settlers, leading to the "ultimate recovery of the United States of America" by the British Empire!From 1880 to 1895 Rhodes's star rose steadily.
This is a developing story, and here is one more part to it, one more place to begin. Last year, a big group of U.C.T. students gathered to watch a statue of Cecil John Rhodes—the nineteenth-century diamond magnate, creator of the Rhodes Scholarships, and outspoken British imperialist and white supremacist—be removed from campus. After a month of protests, this time under the banner of Rhodes Must Fall, the U.C.T. administration had acknowledged what students were saying—that the statue represented the university’s institutional racism, its foundations on the back of black suffering and pain. It was a late-April afternoon and hot. There were camera drones above our heads, photographers everywhere, student leaders speaking, sometimes indecipherably, through bullhorns, as we all stood there waiting for something to happen. Then, suddenly, the statue was in the air, swinging in the grip of a crane. What I remember feeling first was utter surprise. We all knew that it was going to be removed; there was no alternative. But I had walked past that statue for years, had stopped noticing it as anything other than part of the landscape. It was there, and then it was gone.
Let’s leave aside the point that the argument for removing the statue doesn’t just hinge on us holding different values to Cecil Rhodes (it’s about how it celebrates and sanctifies the continuing inequality, racism and global injustice that he did so much to contribute to).
In other territories conflicts among African societies hindered the effectiveness of their resistance. In the 1880s, for example, in what is today Zimbabwe, the British used existing disputes between the Ndebele and neighboring communities to foment a conflict in which the British would have to intervene and would ultimately gain a position to claim control over Ndebele land. Ndansi Kumalo, a Ndebele chief and a subject of Lobengula, the Ndebele king, described the events that took place between 1893 and 1896 when Cecil Rhodes and Lobengula disagreed about the terms of the treaty signed in 1888. Lobengula believed that he had extended only mineral rights to the diamond magnate; Rhodes argued that the entire territory had become his personal fiefdom, and gave his name to the territory: Rhodesia.
Cecil John Rhodes (1853–1902) was the man who envisioned a British colonial presence in Africa from "Cape to Cairo." A staunch racist and imperialist, he was prime minister of the colony of South Africa and founded and gave his name to Rhodesia, which became North and South Rhodesia and finally Zambia and Zimbabwe after independence. Rhodes established the De Beers Consolidated Mines for diamonds in 1888 and the Rhodes Scholarship.
Cheikh Amadou Bamba Mbacké (1853–1927), a Senegalese Muslim theologian, founded the Mouride Sufi brotherhood, the second largest in Senegal. A pacifist, he was opposed to the religious, social, and cultural effects of colonization but did not take part in the Islamic movements that fought militarily against the French. As his influence grew, the French exiled him to Gabon for more than seven years, then to Mauritania for four years. Only one photograph of the sheikh exists.